Main Article Content
Education enables indigenous children to exercise and enjoy economic, social and cultural rights. However, they are often marginalized and discriminated against when it comes to accessing education as compared to the non-indigenous children. This is well reflected among the indigenous community children in Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) situated in Bangladesh. After the signing of the peace accord, several development programmes had been employed by NGOs to foster education among the indigenous children. However, despite their immense efforts, there still tends to be an inadequacy in the progress of these indigenous children’s education attainment. NGOs face several challenges when reaching out to the indigenous communities. Hence, to study the challenges that NGOs face, a qualitative approach was used to understand and investigate the broader picture. Purposive sampling was used to determine the informants and gain insights from the perspective of six chosen NGO officers followed by a thorough in-depth interview to further fulfil the objective of this research. Qualitative thematic analysis was the main approach to data analysis. The findings revealed that geographical barriers, the violent conflicts and the psychology of the indigenous community itself pose a challenge that affects the indigenous students’ attainment in education. The language barrier is also some of the other challenges NGOs face. Based on these findings, a few recommendations were developed followed by suggestions on other potential research topics that may open up a platform for better focus on the educational development aspect of indigenous children in CHT.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Adnan, S. (2010). Contestations regarding identity, nationalism and citizenship during the struggles of the Indigenous peoples of the Chittagong hill tracts of Bangladesh. International Review of Modern Sociology, 34(1), 27-45.
Afreen, N. (2016). Factors of Language Shift from Chakma to Bengali: A Study on the Chakma-speaking people (Doctoral dissertation). Department of English and Humanities, BRAC University.
Andrabi, T., Das, J., & Khwaja, A. I. (2015). Delivering education: a pragmatic framework for improving education in low-income countries. In Handbook of International Development and Education. Edward Elgar Publishing.
Anuradha, B., Aditya, J. P., Singh, G., Gupta, A., Agarwal, P. K., & Bhat, J. C. (2013). Assessment of genetic diversity in indigenous and exotic collections of black soybeans. Journal of breeding and Genetics, 43(1), 81-90.
Ashikuzzaman, N. M., & Mahmud, A. S. M. (2017). Social innovation in education: BRAC boat schools in Bangladesh. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 7(1), 1-14.
Asian Indigenous Peoples' Pact. (2007). A Brief Account of Human Rights situation of the Indigenous People in Bangladesh. http://www.iphrdefenders.net/
Avvisati, F., Gurgand, M., Guyon, N., & Maurin, E. (2014). Getting parents involved: A field experiment in deprived schools. Review of Economic Studies, 81(1), 57-83.
BANBEIS. (2018). Bangladesh Education Statistics 2017. Dhaka: Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics (BANBEIS).
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). (2015). Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh. Dhaka: Ministry of Planning, Government of the People's of Bangladesh.
Barkat, A., & Halim, S. (2015). Socio-economic baseline survey of Chittagong Hill Tracts. Dhaka: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
Bashar, I. (2013). Bangladesh’s forgotten crisis: land, ethnicity, and violence in Chittagong Hill Tracts. Counter Terrorist Trends and Analyses, 3(4), 1-5.
Bergman, B. G. (2016). Assessing impacts of locally designed environmental education projects on students’ environmental attitudes, awareness, and intention to act. Environmental Education Research, 22(4), 480-503.
Biswas, S., Vacik, H., Swanson, M. E., & Haque, S. S. (2016). Evaluating Integrated Watershed Management using multiple criteria analysis—a case study at Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184(5), 2741-2761.
Brown, D. L. (2011). Rural America in an urban society: Changing spatial and social boundaries. Annual review of sociology, 37(1), 565-592.
Cavallaro, F., & Rahman, T. (2009). The Santals of Bangladesh. Linguistics Journal, 4. 192-220.
Chakma, A. (2019). Is NGO Peacebuilding Risk-Free? A Case Study on Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Peacebuilding, 7(2). 349-367.
Chakma, S. (2017). Chakma Language: Survival from being extinct in Bangladesh (Doctoral dissertation). BRAC University.
Chatterjee, P. (2010). A story of ambivalent modernization in Bangladesh and West Bengal: The rise and fall of Bengali elitism in South Asia (Vol. 65). Peter Lang.
Chowdhury, A. M. R., Bhuiya, A., Rasheed, S., Hussain, Z., & Chen, L. C. (2016). The Bangladesh paradox: exceptional health achievement despite economic poverty. The Lancet, 382(9906), 1734-1745.
Chowdhury, K. (2017). Narratives of Nation, War, and Peace in South Asia: An Interview with Jyotirindra Bodhipriya Larma from the Chittagong Hill Tracts. Kairos: A Journal of Critical Symposium, 2(1), 121-145.
Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2016). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage publications.
D’Costa, B. (2016). Marginalization and impunity: Violence against women and girls in the Chittagong hill tracts. International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs and Bangladesh Indigenous Women’s Network.
Davis, J. K. (2015). NGOs and development in Bangladesh: Whose sustainability counts (Doctoral Dissertation). Perth: Murdoch University.
DeJaeghere, J., & Wiger, N. P. (2016). Gender discourses in an NGO education project: Openings for transformation toward gender equality in Bangladesh. International Journal of Educational Development, 33(6), 557-565.
Dhamai, B. M. (2016). An overview of indigenous peoples in Bangladesh. Survival under threat: Human rights situation of indigenous peoples in Bangladesh. Asia Indigenous Peoples Pact.
Gakidou, E. (2014). Increased educational attainment and its effect on child mortality in 175 countries between 1970 and 2009: A Systematic Analysis. The Lancet, 376(9745), 959-974.
Godambe, V. P. (1982). Estimation in survey sampling: robustness and optimality. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 77(378), 393-403.
Hossain, D. M. (2017). Socio-economic situation of the Indigenous people in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) of Bangladesh. Middle East Journal of Business, 55(448), 1-9.
Hossain, G. M., Sarwar, M. T., Rahman, M. H., Rouf, S. M., & Ud-Daula, A. (2013). A study on nutritional status of the adolescent girls at Khagrachhari district in Chittagong hill tracts, Bangladesh. American Journal of Life Sciences, 1(6), 278-282.
International Labor Organization (ILO). (2016). Indigenous Peoples and Climate Change. http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/2016/Docsupdates/Technical-Note_Indigenous-peoples_ILO.pdf
Kainuwa, A. (2014). Influence of socio-economic and educational background of parents on their children’s education in Nigeria. International journal of scientific and research publications, 3(10), 1-8.
Kim, K. H., & Hull, M. F. (2012). Creative personality and anticreative environment for high school dropouts. Creativity Research Journal, 24(2-3), 169-176.
Kinsey, G. (2006). Understanding the Dynamics of No Child Left Behind: Teacher Efficacy and Support for Beginning Teachers. Educational Leadership and Administration: Teaching and Program Development, 18, 147-162.
Kremer, M., Brannen, C., & Glennerster, R. (2015). The challenge of education and learning in the developing world. Science, 340(6130), 297-300.
Kundu, D. K. (2017). State of Justice in Chittagong Hill Tracts: Exploring the Formal and Informal Justice Institutions of Indigenous Communities. BRAC Centre.
Ledger, S., Vidovich, L., & O’Donoghue, T. (2014). The Research Approach. In Global to Local Curriculum Policy Processes. Springer
Legard, R., & Keegan, J. (2003). In-depth interviews. Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers, 6(1), 138-169.
Lochner, L. (2011). Non-production benefits of education: Crime, health, and good citizenship. National Bureau of Economic Research.
Mantel, S., & Khan, M. F. A. (2011). Chittagong Hill Tracts Improved Natural Resource Management: Report on the National Workshop held in Rangamati, Bangladesh. Leida University.
Marshall, C., & Rossman, G. B. (2014). Designing qualitative research. Sage publication.
Morrison, K. (2013). Research methods in education. Routledge.
Mosselson, J., Wheaton, W., & Frisoli, P. S. J. (2011). Education and fragility: A synthesis of the literature. Journal of Education for International Development, 4(1), 1-17.
Glewwe, P. & Muralidharan, K. (2016). Improving education outcomes in developing countries: Evidence, knowledge gaps, and policy implications. In E, A Hanushek, S. Machin, & L. Woessmann (Eds.) Handbook of the Economics of Education, Vol 5 (pp. 653-743). North Holland.
Noriati, A,R., Boon,P.Y., Sharifah Fakhriah & Zuraidah A.M. (2011). Budaya dan pembelajaran. Shah Alam: Oxford Fajar Sdn Bhd.
O'Donoghue, T. (2018). Planning your qualitative research thesis and project: An introduction to interpretivist research in education and the social sciences. Routledge.
Partha, R. S. (2017). The consequences of Chittagong hill tracts (CHT) peace accord at the village level: Case study of Khagrachari hill district in Bangladesh. Journal of International Development and Cooperation, 22(1), 1-14.
Patton, M.Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. Sage Publication.
Pulok, M. H., Uddin, J., Enemark, U., & Hossin, M. Z. (2018). Socioeconomic inequality in maternal healthcare: An analysis of regional variation in Bangladesh. Health & Place, 52(2018), 205-214.
Ravi, K. N., Devi, M. C., & Sharma, P. (2017). Cross-regional analysis on usage of indigenous technical knowledge in dairy farming. Indian Journal of Animal Research, 51(3), 549- 556.
Rehman, H., & Ismail, M. (2012). Study on the role of non-governmental organizations in imparting primary education in Pakistan. International Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 4(1), 751-769.
Rizal, D. P., & Yokota, Y. (2014). Understanding Development, Conflict, and Violence: The Cases of Bhutan, Nepal, North-East India, and the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. Adroit Publishers.
Roy, S. K. (2018). Impact of pilot project of Rural Maintenance Programme (RMP) on destitute women: CARE, Bangladesh. Food and nutrition bulletin, 29(1), 67-75.
Schmidt, R. W. (2013). Longman dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics. Routledge.
Sharma, M., & Zeller, M. (2014). Placement and outreach of group-based credit organizations: The cases of ASA, BRAC, and PROSHIKA in Bangladesh. World Development, 27(12), , 2123-2136.
Shotland, M. (2018). The impact of maternal literacy and participation programs: Evidence from a randomized evaluation in India. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 9(4), 303-37.
Sigei, J. (2014). Influence of home-based factors on dropout rates of students in coeducational public day secondary schools in Rongai District, Nakuru County, Kenya. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(7), 273.
Tietjen, K. (2003). The Bangladesh primary education stipend project: a descriptive analysis. World Bank Group. Retrieved from https://policycommons.net/artifacts/1458106/bangladesh-primary-education-and-stipend-project/2096230/
UNICEF. (2015). Progress for Children beyond Averages: Learning from the MDGS. UNICEF, United Nations Children's Fund.