LoRa Based IoT Enabled Sensor Networks for Plantations Manuscript Received: 29 July 2023, Accepted: 25 August 2023, Published: 15 March 2024, ORCiD: 0000-0003-1076-5034, https://doi.org/10.33093/jetap.2024.6.1.3

Main Article Content

Muhammad Luthfi Lokman
Kah Yoong Chan
Yik Tian Ting
Chu Liang Lee
Gwo Chin Chung
Wai Leong Pang


The integration of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology with the Internet of Things (IoT) in agriculture plays a pivotal role in addressing a range of challenges and constraints faced by the sector, encompassing issues such as labour shortages, suboptimal farm management practises, and unpredictable weather conditions. In response to these pressing concerns, this study focuses on the development of WSN with IoT for agriculture, employing a spread spectrum modulation technique named the Long Range (LoRa) module. By leveraging LoRa devices and wireless radio frequencies, this technology serves as a versatile platform for delivering wireless, long-range, and energy-efficient communication to support small and medium-sized agricultural operations. These operations often lack adequate technological assistance due to factors such as limited expertise and the high costs associated with cutting-edge agricultural technology. The research undertakes a comprehensive exploration, involving LoRa parameter testing, Line-of-Sight evaluations, Non-Line-Of-Sight (NLOS) simulations, and sensor calibration, to assess the efficacy of LoRa-based IoT-enabled sensor networks within plantation environments. The overarching objective of this research endeavour is to provide valuable insights that contribute to the optimisation of agricultural practises through streamlined IoT solutions. By implementing practical and cost-effective strategies, the local agricultural sector stands poised to achieve seamless strides in both sustainable and efficient food production.

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