Disputes Emanating from the Infringement of Articles 74(3) and 83(3) and Optional Exception under Article 298(1)(a)(i) of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

Main Article Content

Quyen Mai Nguyen
Linh Thao Nguyen

Abstract

Maritime delimitation, which ensures the jurisdiction exertion and effective use of maritime spaces of coastal States, never involves minimal efforts. In the transitional period pending the final delimitation agreement of overlapping areas in the exclusive economic zone or continental shelf, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) sets out obligations for State Parties to take provisional measures under Articles 74(3) and 83(3). The violation of these obligations may lead to disputes between States that will potentially be brought before the compulsory dispute settlement procedure under UNCLOS. Whether disputes arising from the violation of Articles 74(3) and 83(3) fall into the scope of application of optional exception under Article 298(1)(a)(i) remained debatable. Accordingly, this research paper is conducted to analyse the separation and independence between the interim regime and maritime delimitation to support the opinion that disputes emanating from the infringement of Articles 74(3) and 83(3) are not disputes ‘relating to sea boundary delimitation’ under Article 298(1)(a)(i). This paper uses the doctrinal approach on the provisions in international treaties or conventions, international customary law, and decisions and awards of international courts and tribunals.

Article Details

How to Cite
Nguyen, Q. M., & Nguyen, L. T. (2022). Disputes Emanating from the Infringement of Articles 74(3) and 83(3) and Optional Exception under Article 298(1)(a)(i) of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Asian Journal of Law and Policy, 2(2), 39–55. https://doi.org/10.33093/ajlp.2022.4
Section
Articles

References

A Conciliation Commission Constituted under Annex V to the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea between the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste and the Commonwealth of Australia, Permanent Court of Arbitration, Decision on Australia’s Objections to Competence, 19 September 2016, [66]

Aegean Sea Continental Shelf Cases (Greece v Turkey) (Interim Protection Order) [1976] International Court of Justice Reports, 3 [30]

Agreement on Provisional Arrangements for the Delimitation of the Maritime Boundaries between the Republic of Tunisia and the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria (11 February 2002) 2238 United Nations Treaty Series 197

Agreement on the Delimitation of the Marine and Submarine Areas and Maritime Cooperation between the Dominican Republic and the Republic of Colombia (signed 13 January 1978, entered into force 15 February 1979) 1275 United Nations Treaty Series 363

Alexander Proelss, The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: A Commentary (C.H.Beck/Hart/Nomos 2017) 578

Bay of Bengal Maritime Boundary Arbitration between Bangladesh and India (Bangladesh v India) (7 July 2014) Permanent Court of Arbitration, Award, [407]–[408]

Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v Nigeria: Equatorial Guinea intervening), Judgment [2002] ICJ Reports, 303 [304]

Case Concerning the Factory at Chorzow (Germany v Poland), Claim for Indemnity, Jurisdiction, Judgment (1927) Dissenting Opinion by M. Ehrlich, Permanent Court of International Justice Series A 9, 39

Continental Shelf (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya/Malta) [1985] International Court of Justice Reports, 13 [64]

Continental Shelf (Tunisia/Libyan Arab Jamahiriya) (n 71) Dissenting Opinion of Judge Oda 157 [131]–[145]

Continental Shelf (Tunisia/Libyan Arab Jamahiriya), Judgment [1982] International Court of Justice Reports, 18 [100]–[102]

Delimitation of the Continental Shelf between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the French Republic, XVIII Reports of International Arbitral Award, [99]

Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the Atlantic Ocean (Ghana/Côte d’Ivoire) [2017] International Tribunal for the Law Of the Sea Reports, 4 [624]

Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the Gulf of Maine Area, Judgment [1984] International Court of Justice Reports, 246 [193]

Dispute Concerning Coastal State Rights in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov, and Kerch Strait (Ukraine v the Russian Federation), Rejoinder of Ukraine on Jurisdiction (28 March 2019) [109]

Dispute Concerning Coastal State Rights in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov, and Kerch Strait (Ukraine v the Russian Federation),Written observations and submissions of Ukraine on Jurisdiction (27 November 2018) [113]

Dispute Concerning Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary between Bangladesh and Myanmar in the Bay of Bengal, Judgment [2012] International Tribunal for the Law Of the Sea Reports, 4, [291]–[293]

Exchange of Notes dated 18 October 2001 and 31 October 2001 between the Government of Ireland and the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland constituting an agreement pursuant to Article 83 paragraph 3 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 on the provisional delimitation of an area of the continental shelf (2011) 2309 United Nations Treaty Series 21

Fisheries Jurisdiction (Spain v Canada), Jurisdiction of the Court, Judgment [1998] International Court of Justice Reports 432, 448 [30]–[31]

Guyana v Suriname (17 September 2007) Permanent Court of Arbitration, Award of the Arbitral Tribunal, 153 [460]

International Law Commission, Report of the International Law Commission on the work of the sixty-fifth session (2013), A/68/10, <https://documents-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N13/480/25/PDF/N1348025.pdf?OpenElement>

Interpretation of Peace Treaties with Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania (First Phase Advisory Opinion) [1950] International Court of Justice Reports 65, 74

M Nordquist (ed), United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982: A Commentary (V Nijhoff 1989) 109–110 [298.2]

Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar v Bahrain), Merits, Judgment [2001] International Court of Justice Reports, 40 [210]–[215]

Maritime Delimitation in the Area between Greenland and Jan Mayen (Denmark v Norway), Judgment [1993] International Court of Justice Reports, 38 [92]

Maritime Delimitation in the Black Sea (Romania v Ukraine), Judgment [2009] International Court of Justice Reports, 61 [137]

Mavrommatis Palestine Concessions, Jurisdiction (Judgment of 30 August 1924) Permanent Court of International Justice Series A 6, 11

Nilufer Oral, ‘Ukraine v The Russian Federation: Navigating Conflict over Sovereignty under UNCLOS’ (2021) 97 International Law Studies 478, 495 <https://cil.nus.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2021/02/Ukraine-v.-The-Russian-Federation_-Navigating-Conflict-over-Sovereignty-under-UNCLOS.pdf>

North Sea Continental Shelf Cases (Judgment) [1969] International Court of Justice Reports, 3 [85(a)] & [86]; Guyana v Suriname (n 2) 153 [461]

Oxford Leaners Dictionary, <https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/definition/english/relate-to>.

Rainer Lagoni, ‘Interim Measures Pending Maritime Delimitation Agreements’ (1984) 78 The American Journal of International Law 345, 351 and 354

Report on the Obligations of States under Articles 74(3) and 83(3) of UNCLOS In respect of Undelimited Maritime Areas (30 June 2016) British Institute of International and Comparative Law, 13 [47]

Second stage of the proceedings between Eritrea and Yemen (Maritime Delimitation) (17 December 1999) Reports of International Arbitral Award, [133]–[146]

Second stage of the proceedings between Eritrea and Yemen (Maritime Delimitation) (17 December 1999) Reports of International Arbitral Award, [139]

South China Sea Arbitration (30 March 2014) I The Philippines’ Memorial, [7.124]

South China Sea Arbitration (The Philippines v China) (29 October 2015) Permanent Court of Arbitration, Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility, [168]–[178]

South West Africa (Ethiopia v South Africa; Liberia v South Africa), Preliminary Objections, Judgment [1962] International Court of Justice Reports 319, 328

Territorial Dispute (Libyan Arab v Jamahiriya/Chad), Judgment [1994] International Court of Justice Reports 6 [41]

Territorial and Maritime Dispute (Nicaragua v Colombia), Judgment [2012] International Court of Justice Reports, 624 [242]

Territorial and Maritime Dispute between Nicaragua and Honduras in the Caribbean Sea (Nicaragua v Honduras), Judgment [2007] International Court of Justice Reports, 659 [304]–[305]

Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea, 58th Plenary meeting, Document A/CONF.62/SR.58, <https://legal.un.org/diplomaticconferences/1973_los/docs/english/vol_5/a_conf62_sr58.pdf> [18]; M Nordquist (n 89) 92 [297.6]

Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea, Informal Composite Negotiating Text (Revision 2), UN Doc. A/CONF.62/WP.10/Rev.2/CORR.2 (1980) <https://legal.un.org/diplomaticconferences/1973_los/docs/english/vol_8/a_conf62_wp10_rev2_corr2.pdf> arts 74(3) and 83(3)

Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea, Informal Single Negotiating Text (Part II) Document A/CONF.62/WP.8/Rev.1/PartII (1975) <https://legal.un.org/diplomaticconferences/1973_los/docs/english/vol_4/a_conf62_wp8_part2.pdf>, arts 61(3) and 70(3)

Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea, Netherlands: draft article on delimitation between States with opposite and adjacent coasts (1974) Document A/CONF.62/C.2/L.14. <https://legal.un.org/diplomaticconferences/1973_los/docs/english/vol_3/a_conf62_c2_l14.pdf>

Thomas A Mensah, ‘Joint Development Zones as an Alternative Dispute Settlement Approach in Maritime Boundary Delimitation’, in Rainer Lagoni & Daniel Vignes, Maritime Delimitation (Publications on Ocean Development Series 53, Nijhoff 2006) 143

Treaty between the Federal Republic of Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe on the Joint Development of Petroleum and Other Resources, in respect of Areas of the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Two States (signed 21 February 2001; entered into force 16 January 2003) 50 Law of the Sea Bulletin 43

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (10 December 1982) 1833 United Nations Treaty Series 397

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (23 May 1969) 1155 United Nations Treaty Series, art 31

Yoshifumi Tanaka, The International Law of the Sea (3rd ed., Cambridge University Press 2019) 506

Youri Van Logchem, ‘Chapter 7: The scope for Unilateralism in Disputed maritime area’, in Clive H Schofield, Seokwoo Lee and Moon-Sang Kwon, The Limits of Maritime Jurisdiction (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 2014) 179