Feasibility of Use of Second Life Electrical Vehicle Batteries in Data Centres in Malaysia Manuscript Received: 13 September 2022, Accepted: 13 October 2022, Published: 15 March 2023, ORCiD: 0000-0002-0024-7279, https://doi.org/10.33093/jetap.2023.5.1.2

Main Article Content

Abdulla Mubaah
Siva Priya Thiagarajah


It is estimated that the cumulative of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will reach 85 million by 2030.  EV batteries that have degraded to 80% of their initial capacity no longer provide the required efficiency for EV, resulting in an increasing amount of batteries being discarded and stored in warehouses instead of being recycled. The cost of this storage after its End of Life (EOL) adds to the initial cost of the EV. There is amounting environmental pressure to re-purpose these discarded batteries in other applications, such as energy arbitrage and peak shaving, such that the initial cost of the EV be reduced. This work presents a feasibility study that allows discarded EV batteries to be repurposed batteries to provide peak shaving in a mid-tier data centre with an area size of 465 m2. A comparison of the cost during peak hours shows that the repurposed batteries can be used as a reliable power supply source to reduce the reliance of data centres on grid power during peak hours. Results showed that the use of these repurposed batteries also achieved a higher cost savings as compared to using brand new Lithium Ion battery over a period of 10 years. A reliability study also shows that the repurposed battery system and brand new battery system performs at par, when the data centre draws power from the grid during peak hours. The study concludes that power supply system in data centres that uses repurposed batteries to achieve peak shaving is a cost effective, green solution that should be implemented. In the larger picture, the reusability of the EV batteries is expected to reduce the initial price of the EV cars, allowing a larger market penetration and thus ensuring the sustainability of the EV car industry. Reusing the stored batteries also reduces environmental issues related to Lithium mining for brand new batteries, such as mining pollution and fresh water shortage.

Article Details



Y. E. Durmus, H. Zhang, F. Baakes, G. Desmaizieres, H. Hayun, L. Yang, M. Kolek, V. Küpers, J. Janek, D. Mandler, S. Passerini and Y. Ein-Eli, “Side by Side Battery Technologies with Lithium-Ion Based Batteries,” Advanced Energy Materials, vol. 10, no. 24, 2000089, 2020.

A. Castillo and D. F. Gayme, “Grid-scale Energy Storage Applications in Renewable Energy Integration: A Survey,” Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 87, pp. 885–894, 2014.

Z. Zhang and P. Ramadass, “Lithium-Ion Battery Systems and Technology,” in Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Springer, pp. 6122–6149, 2012.

T. Bunsen, “Global EV Outlook 2019,” IEA, 2019.

M. H. S. M. Haram, J. W. Lee, G. Ramasamy, E. E. Ngu, S. P. Thiagarajah and Y. H. Lee, “Feasibility of Utilising Second Life EV Batteries: Applications, Lifespan, Economics, Environmental Impact, Assessment, and Challenges,” Alexandria Eng. J., vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 4517–4536, 2021.

NC State University “Literature Review of Energy Storage Services,” https://nccleantech.ncsu.edu/2018/12/04/energy-storage-study-final-report-released/ (accessed Oct 31 2021).

Deloitte, “Battery Electric Vehicles Deloitte Insights.” https://www2.deloitte.com/uk/en/insights/industry/automotive/battery-electric- vehicles.html (accessed Jan. 31, 2021).

IDTechEx, “Second-life Electric Vehicle Batteries 2020-2030: IDTechEx.” https://www.idtechex.com/en/research-report/second-life- electric-vehicle-batteries-2020-2030/681 (accessed Jan. 31, 2021).

E. M. Laserna, I. Gandiaga, E. S. Zabala, J. Badeda, D.I. Stroe, M. Swierczynski and A. Goikoetxea, “Battery Second Life: Hype, Hope or Reality? A Critical Review of The State of The Art,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 93, pp. 701–718, 2018.

“Data Center Energy Storage Market Size Report, 2020- 2027,” Grandview Research,

https://www.grandviewresearch.com/industry-analysis/data-center-energy-storage-market (accessed Jan. 31, 2021).

R. Rahmani, I. Moser and M. Seyedmahmoudian, “A Complete Model for Modular Simulation of Data Centre Power Load,” 2018, [Online]. Available: http://arxiv.org/abs/1804.00703.

M. Dayarathna, Y. Wen and R. Fan, “Data Center Energy Consumption Modeling: A Survey,” IEEE Comm. Surv. and Tut., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 732–794, 2016.

Okey Keke, “Data Center Redundancy: 2N vs N+1 | Digital Realty,” 2020. https://www.digitalrealty.com/blog/2n-vs-n-1 (accessed Oct. 23, 2021).

R. Reinhardt, B. A. García, L. C. Casals and S. G. Domingo. "Critical Evaluation of European Union Legislation on The Second Use of Degraded Traction Batteries,” 13th Int. Conf. on the Europ. Ener. Market, pp. 1-5, 2016.

D. Strickland, L. Chittock, D. A. Stone, M. P. Foster and B. Price, "Estimation of Transportation Battery Second Life for Use in Electricity Grid Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 795-803, 2014.

I. Mathews, B. Xu, W. He, V. Barreto, T. Buonassisi and I. M. Peters, "Technoeconomic Model of Second-life Batteries for Utility-scale Solar Considering Calendar and Cycle Aging,” Appl. Ener., vol. 269, 115127, 2020.

W. Li, R. Long, H. Chen and J. Geng, “A Review of Factors Influencing Consumer Intentions to Adopt Battery Electric Vehicles,” Renew. and Sustain. Ener. Rev., vol. 78, pp. 318-328, 2017.

G. Reid and J. Julve. "Second Life-batteries As Flexible Storage for Renewables Energies,” Bundesverband Erneuerbare Energie eV (BEE), 2016.

A. Beaudet, F. Larouche, K. Amouzegar, P. Bouchard and K. Zaghib, “Key Challenges and Opportunities for Recycling Electric Vehicle Battery Materials,” Sustainability, vol. 12, no. 14, 5837, 2020.

K. Richa, C. W. Babbitt, N. G. Nenadic and G. Gaustad, “Environmental Trade-offs Across Cascading Lithium-ion Battery Life Cycles,” The Int. J. Life Cycl. Assess., vol. 22, pp. 66-81, 2017.

J. W. Lee, M. H. S. M. Haram, G. Ramasamy, S. P. Thiagarajah, E. E. Ngu and Y. H. Lee, “Technical Feasibility and Economics of Repurposed Electric Vehicles Batteries for Power Peak Shaving,” J. Ener. Storage, vol. 40, 102752, 2021.

Torque News ,“GM and ABB Demonstrate A Second Life for Used Chevy Volt Battery Packs,” https://www.torquenews.com/1075/gm-and-abb-demonstrate-second-life-used-chevy-volt-battery-packs (accessed Oct. 26, 2021).

“Bosch, BMW, Vattenfall Resurrect EV Batteries for ‘Second Life’ As Large-scale Energy ST”, Energy Storage News, 2015. https://www.energy-storage.news/bosch-bmw-vattenfall-resurrect-ev-batteries-for-second-life-as-large-scale-energy-st/ (accessed Oct. 26, 2021).

Fortuna C.,´ What’s Possible for Used EV Batteries? Daimler Energy Storage Units Provide Second-life Power, CleanTechnica, Jun 2018. https://cleantechnica.com/2018/06/28/whats-possiblefor-used-ev-batteries-daimler-energy-storage-units-provide-second-life-power/ (accessed 29.5.2020).

Himaxelectronics, “18650 Li-ion 12V 50Ah Battery Pack 12v 50ah Battery Pack.” https://himaxelectronics.com/product-item/18650-li-ion-12v-50ah-battery-pack/ (accessed Oct. 10, 2021).

“Simulink based Three Phase Voltage Source Inverter Simulation.” https://microcontrollerslab.com/three-phase-voltage-source-inverter-simulink-model/ (accessed Oct. 17, 2021).

T. L. Vasques, P. Moura, and A. de Almeida, “A Review on Energy Efficiency and Demand Response with Focus on Small and Medium Data Centers,” Ener. Effic., vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 1399–1428, 2019.

G. Ghatikar, M. A. Piette, S. Fujita, A. McKane, J. H. Dudley and A. Radspieler, “Demand Response and Open Automated Demand Response Opportunities for Data Centers,” Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., 2010.

Nissan Leaf, “Nissan Leaf Battery Specs.”, 2018.

https://pushevs.com/2018/01/29/2018-nissan-leaf-battery-real-specs/ (accessed Oct. 17, 2021).

Renewable Energy World “Annual Survey Finds Battery Prices Dropped 13% in 2020,” .” https://www.renewableenergyworld.com/storage/annual-survey-finds-battery-prices-dropped-13-in-2020/#gref (accessed Oct. 23, 2021).

H. Rallo, G. Benveniste, I. Gestoso and B. Amante, “Economic Analysis of The Disassembling Activities to The Reuse of Electric Vehicles Li-ion Batteries,” Resour., Conser. and Recycl., vol. 159, 104785, 2020.

“Tariff Book,” https://www.tnb.com.my/residential/pricing-tariffs (accessed Oct 18, 2021).