Main Article Content
This paper proposes a technique for synthesizing multiple point target scatterer Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) echoes in real-time. Traditional approaches require high computation resources to calculate the complex SAR echoes due to its complex mathematical model. The proposed technique employs the low computation Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) approach to generate these complex sinusoid echoes. The proposed Synthetic Aperture Radar Echoes Synthesizer (SAR-ES) is capable of synthesizing SAR echoes accurately in real-time and was built in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform. The system can be used as a testbed to validate and evaluate the performance of a real-time SAR processing algorithms/system prior to the actual flight mission. This could help in reducing the frequency of flight trials and to reduce the SAR system development risk especially for satellite-borne SAR system.
M. I. Skolnik, Radar Handbook, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970.
M. Y. Chua, J. T. Sri Sumantyo, C. E. Santosa, G. F. Panggabean, F. D. Sri Sumantyo, T. Watanabe, Y. Q. Ji, P. P. Sitompul, M. Nasucha, F. Kurniawan, B. Purbantoro, A. Awaludin, K. Sasmita, E. T. Rahardji, G. Wibisono, R. H. Jatmiko, Sudaryatno, T. H. Purwanto, B. S. Widartono and M. Kamal, "The Maiden Flight of Hinotori-C: The First C Band Full Polarimetric Circularly Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar in The World," IEEE Aerospace and Electronic Systems Magazine, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 24-35, 2019.
Y. K. Chan and V. C. Koo, "An Introduction to Synthetic Aperture Radar," Progress in Electromagnetic Research B, vol. 2, pp. 27-60, 2008.
C. H. Lim, C. S. Lim, M. Y. Chua, Y. K. Chan, T. S. Lim and V. C. Koo, "A New Data Acquisition and Processing System for UAVSAR," IEICE Electronics Express, vol. 8, no. 20, pp. 1716-1722, 2011.
A. Moreira, P. Prats-Iraola, M. Younis, G. Krieger, I. Hjansek and K. P. Papathanassiou, "A Tutorial on Synthetic Aperture Radar," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Magazine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 6-43, 2013.
M. Y. Chua, H. S. Boey, C. H. Lim, V. C. Koo, H. S. Lim, Y. K. Chan and T. S. Lim, "A Miniature Real-time Re-configurable Radar Waveform Synthesizer for UAV Based Radar," Progress In Electromagnetics Research C, vol. 31, pp. 169-183, 2012.
M. Y. Chua, V. C. Koo, H. S. Lim and J. T. Sri Sumantyo, "Phase-coded Stepped Frequency Linear Frequency Modulated Waveform Synthesis Technique for Low Altitude Ultra-wideband Synthetic Aperture Radar," IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 11391-11403, 2017.
B. P. Hawkins and W. Tung, "UAVSAR Real-Time Embedded GPU Processor," in 2019 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Yokohama, 2019.
A. Kozme and J. Walker, "Synthetic Aperture Radar Technology & Application," in Engineering Summer Conferences, Michigan.
M. Soumekh, "A System Model and Inversion for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging," IEEE Transactions on Image Processing, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 64-76, 1992.
K. Radecki, P. Samczyriski, K. Kulpa and J. Drozdowicz, "A real-Time Unfocused SAR Processor Based on A Portable CUDA GPU," in 2015 European Radar Conference (EuRAD), Paris, 2015.
B. Li, C. Li, Y. Xie, L. Chen, H. Shi and Y. Deng, "2018 IEEE High Performance Extreme Computing Conference (HPEC)," in A SoPC based Fixed Point System for Spaceborne SAR Real-Time Imaging Processing, Waltham, 2018.
Y. Sugimoto, S. Ozawa and N. Inaba, "Near Real-Time Sar Image Focusing Onboard Spacecraft," in 2018 IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Valencia, 2018.
N. Zhang, D. Yao, C. Li and K. Jing, "A Real-Time Processing System for Airborne Forward-Squint SAR Based on DSP," in IET International Radar Conference 2015, Hangzhou, 2015.
B. Cronin, "DDS Devices Generate High-Quality Waveforms Simply, Efficiently, and Flexibly," Analog Dialogue, 2012.
V. C. Koo, Y. K. Chan, V. Gobi, M. Y. Chua, C. H. Lim, C. S. Lim , C. C. Thum, T. S. Lim, Z. Ahmad, K. A. Mahmood, M. H. Shahid, C. Y. Ang, W. Q. Tan, P. N. Tan, K. S. Yee, W. G. Cheaw, H. S. Boey, A. L. Choo and B. C. Sew, "A New Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar for Environmental Monitoring," Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 122, pp. 245-268, 2012.
M. Y. Chua and V. C. Koo, "FPGA-based Chirp Generator for High Resolution UAV SAR," Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 99, pp. 71-88, 2009.
Analog Devices, "A Technical Tutorial on Digital Signal Synthesis," Analog Devices, 1999.