Design and Development of A Hemisphere Flat Base Solar Thermal Water Distillation System Manuscript Received: 10 August 2023, Accepted: 26 September 2023, Published: 15 March 2024, ORCiD: 0000-0002-0823-1466,

Main Article Content

Shen Yee Pang
Wei Jun Teh
Tick Hui Oh
Shing Chyi Chua


The clean water crisis around the world is mainly caused by the pollution and depletion of freshwater. There is only less than 1% of the water on Earth is in a pure and consumable state. Many people around the world actually die every single day due to the lack of access to clean, potable water and to proper sanitation which resulted in many waterborne diseases. Hence, water purification plays an extremely important role as access to clean water is fundamental to basic human rights. The objective of this paper is to develop a solar-thermal water distillation system with solar energy as its main power source to distilled water for safe consumption, hence achieving clean water purification through clean energy. The proposed hemisphere flat-based solar thermal distiller works well with the absorption of sun radiation from almost every angle with its spherical surface. The prototype works best under full sunlight conditions and is capable to purify water from various water sources to safe and ideal pH value for consumption. Solar radiation, being a clean energy and available in abundance at no cost, makes this design feasible for many and easy to scale up whenever the need arises. The simple working principle and fabrication at low cost also makes it an ideal solution in helping communities that have difficulty or no access to clean water supply.

Article Details



M. Appadurai and V. Velmurugan, “Performance Analysis of Fin Type Solar Still Integrated with Fin Type Mini Solar Pond,” Sustain. Ener. Technol. Assess., vol. 9, pp. 30–36, 2015.

M. Huq and S. Ahmed, “Prospects of Incorporation of Nanoparticles in Molten Salt for Water Purification,” Renew. and Sustain. Ener. Rev., vol. 82, pp. 2814–2819, 2017.

H. Manchanda and M. Kumar, "A Comprehensive Decade Review and Analysis on Designs and Performance Parameters of Passive Solar Still," Renew.: Wind, Water, and Solar, vol. 2, no. 17, 2015.

T. Arunkumar, H. W. Lim and S. J. Lee, "A Review on Efficiently Integrated Passive Distillation Systems for Active Solar Steam Evaporation," Renew. and Sustain. Ener. Rev., vol. 155, no. 111894, 2022.

A. K. Singh, "An Inclusive Study on New Conceptual Designs of Passive Solar Desalting Systems," Heliyon, vol. 7(2), no. e05793, 2021.

R. Balan, J. Chandrasekaran, S. Shanmugan, B. Janarthanan and S. Kumar, "Review on Passive Solar Distillation," Desalination and Water Treat., vol. 28(1-3), pp. 217–238, 2011.

P. Kalita, A. Dewan and S. Borah, "A Review on Recent Developments in Solar Distillation Units," Sadhana, vol. 41(2), pp. 203–223, 2016.

S. A. Kalogirou, "Seawater Desalination Using Renewable Energy Source," Prog. Ener. Combust. Sci., vol. 31(3), pp. 242–281, 2005.

T. Arunkumar, K. Vinothkumar, A. Ahsan, R. Jayaprakash and S. Kumar, "Experimental Study on Various Solar Still Designs," ISRN Renew. Ener., vol. 18, pp. 1–10, 2012.

K. Shalabi and A. Ghandour, "Improving Productivity of Solar Energy Distillation Still for Sea Water," Int. J. Eng. Res. and Technol., vol. 5(9), pp. 498–502, 2018.

R. Dev and G. N. Tiwari, "Characteristic Equation of A Passive Solar Still," Desalination, vol. 245(1–3), pp. 246–265, 2009.

I. Al-Hayeka and O. O. Badran, "The Effect of Using Different Designs of Solar Stills on Water Distillation," Desalination, vol. 169(2), pp. 121–127, 2004.

M. Feilizadeh, M. Soltanieh, M. R. Karimi Estahbanati, K. Jafarpur and S. S. Ashrafmansouri, "Optimization of Geometrical Dimensions of Single-slope Basin-type Solar Stills," Desalination, vol. 424, pp. 159–168, 2017.

Z. M. Omara, A. E. Kabeel and M. M. Younes, "Enhancing the Stepped Solar Still Performance using Internal and External Reflectors," Ener. Conver. and Manage., vol. 78, pp. 876–881, 2013.

T. Suresh, A. Syed Abuthahir, A. Tamilazhagan, T. R. Sathishkumar, S. Jegadeeswaran and U. G. Scholar, "A Review on Modified Solar Stills with Thermal Energy Storage and Fins," Int. J. Res. Eng. and Technol., vol. 4(10), pp. 1216–1236, 2008.

G. Xie, L. Sun, T. Yan, J. Tang, J. Bao and M. Du, "Model Development and Experimental Verification for Tubular Solar Still Operating under Vacuum Condition," Energy, vol. 157, pp. 115–130, 2018.

T. Yan, G. Xie, W. Chen, Z. Wu, J. Xu and Y. Liu, "Experimental Study on Three-Effect Tubular Solar Still under Vacuum and Immersion Cooling," Desalination, vol. 515, no. 115211, 2021.

T. Arunkumar, R. Jayaprakash, A. Ahsan, D. Denkenberger and M. S. Okundamiya, "Effect of Water and Air Flow on Concentric Tubular Solar Water Desalting System," Appl. Ener., vol. 103, pp. 109–115, 2013.

H. N. Panchal and P. K. Shah, "Experimental and ANSYS CFD Simulation Analysis of Hemispherical Solar Still,” Int. J. Renew. Ener., vol. 8(1), pp. 1–14, 2013.

T. Arunkumar, R. Jayaprakash, D. Denkenberger, A. Ahsan, M. S. Okundamiya, S. Kumar, H. Tanaka and H. S. Aybar, "An Experimental Study on A Hemispherical Solar Still," Desalination, vol. 286, pp. 342–348, 2012.

K. H. Nayi and K. V. Modi, "Pyramid Solar Still: A Comprehensive Review," Renew. and Sustain. Ener. Rev., vol. 81, pp. 136–148, 2018.

G. Angappan, S. Pandiaraj, H. Panchal, T. Kathiresan, D. Ather, C. Dutta, M. K. Subramaniam, S. Muthusamay, A. E. Kabeel, A. S. El-Shafay and K. K. Sadasivuni, "An Extensive Review of Performance Enhancement Techniques for Pyramid Solar Still for Solar Thermal Applications," Desalination, vol. 532, no. 115692, 2022.

A. Ahsan, M. Imteaz, U. A. Thomas, M. Azmi, A. Rahman and N. N. Nik Daud, "Parameters Affecting the Performance of A Low Cost Solar Still," Appl. Ener., vol. 114, pp. 924–930, 2014.

R. Sathyamurthy, H. J. Kennady, P. K. Nagarajan and A. Ahsan, "Factors Affecting the Performance of Triangular Pyramid Solar Still," Desalination, vol. 344, pp. 383–390, 2014.

M. Jobrane, A. Kopmeier, A. Kahn, H. M. Cauchie, A. Kharroubi and C. Penny, "Internal and External Improvements of Wick Type Solar Stills in Different Configurations for Drinking Water Production – A Review," Groundwater for Sustain. Develop., vol. 12, no. 100519, 2021.

R. Sathyamurthy, H. J. Kennady, P. K. Nagarajan and A. Ahsan, "Factors Affecting the Performance of Triangular Pyramid Solar Still," Desalination, vol. 344, pp. 383–390, 2014.

T. Rajaseenivasan, T. Elango and K.Kalidasa Murugavel, "Comparative Study of Double Basin and Single Basin Solar Stills," Desalination, vol. 309, pp. 27–31, 2013.

R. V. Singh, S. Kumar, M. M. Hasan, M. E. Khan and G. N. Tiwari, "Performance of a Solar Still Integrated with Evacuated Tube Collector in Natural Mode," Desalination, vol. 318, pp. 25–33, 2013.

T. Rajaseenivasan, P. Nelson Raja and K. Srithar, "An Experimental Investigation on A Solar Still with An Integrated Flat Plate Collector," Desalination, vol. 347, pp. 131–137, 2014.

A. K. Singh, "An Inclusive Study on New Conceptual Designs of Passive Solar Desalting Systems," Heliyon, vol. 7(2), no. e05793, 2021.

T. Arunkumar, D. Denkenberger, A. Ahsan and R. Jayaprakash, "The Augmentation of Distillate Yield by using Concentrator Coupled Solar Still with Phase Change Material," Desalination, vol. 314, pp. 189–192, 2013.

A. S. Abdullah, "Improving the Performance of Stepped Solar Still," Desalination, vol. 319, pp. 60–65, 2013.

H. Tanaka, "Monthly Optimum Inclination of Glass Cover and External Reflector of A Basin Type Solar Still With Internal and External Reflector," Solar Ener., vol. 84(11), pp. 1959–1966, 2010.

Z. M. Omara and M. A. Eltawil, "Hybrid of Solar Dish Concentrator, New Boiler and Simple Solar Collector for Brackish Water Desalination," Desalination, vol. 326, pp. 62–68, 2013.

A. F. Muftah, M. A. Alghoul, A. Fudholi, M. M. Abdul-Majeed and K. Sopian, "Factors Affecting Basin Type Solar Still Productivity: A Detailed Review," Renew. and Sustain. Ener. Rev., vol. 32, pp. 430–447, 2014.

T. Arunkumar, D. Denkenberger, R. Velraj, R. Sathyamurthy, H. Tanaka and K. Vinothkumar, "Experimental Study on a Parabolic Concentrator Assisted Solar Desalting System. Ener. Conver. and Manage., vol. 105, pp. 665–674, 2015.

R. Bhardwaj, M. V. Ten Kortenaar and R. F. Mudde, "Maximized Production of Water by Increasing Area of Condensation Surface for Solar Distillation," Appl. Ener., vol. 154, pp. 480–490, 2015.