No. 2 GPS Derived Seismic Signals for Far Field Earthquake Epicenter Location Estimation Manuscript Received: 19 Dec 2020, Accepted: 23 Dec 2020, Published: 15 June 2021

Main Article Content

A. Z. Sha’ameri
W. A. Wan Aris
S. Sadiah
T. A. Musa


A reliable epicenter estimation method is proposed for Global Positioning System (GPS) derived seismic signal for far-field regional earthquake. The main contribution is the use of time-frequency analysis to estimate the time of arrival (TOA) using multilateration technique. The data from the 2004 Sumatra Andaman earthquake captured from four GPS continuously operating reference stations (GPS CORS) were used in the analysis. To validate the accuracy of the proposed method, the estimated epicenter location was compared with the data released by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The estimated location shows an error of about 0.0572 degrees in latitude and 0.2848 degrees in longitude. The proposed analysis method could complement existing seismometer measurements, improve in understanding of geo-seismic phenomena, and plan future infrastructure development.

Article Details



P. M. Shearer, “Introduction to Seismology,” Cambridge University Press, 2009.

M. A. Sharifi and A. Shahamat, “Detection of Co-Seismic Earthquake Gravity Field Signals Using GRACE-like Mission Simulations,” Adv. in Space Res., vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 2623–2635, 2017.

W. Feng, J. Ren and Z. Jiang, “GPS Station Short-term Dynamic Char- Acteristics of Micro Displacement Before Menyuan M6. 4 Earthquake,” Geodesy and Geodynamics, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 237–244, 2016.

J. Ibanga, A. Akpan, N. George, A. Ekanem and A. George, “Unusual Ionospheric Variations Before The Strong Auckland Islands, New Zealand Earthquake of 30th September, 2007,” NRIAG Journal of Astronomy and Geophysics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 149–154, 2018.

A. Bhardwaj, S. Singh, L. Sam, P. Joshi, A. Bhardwaj, F. J. M. Torres and R. Kumar, "A Review on Remotely Sensed Land Surface Temperature Anomaly As An Earthquake Precursor,” Int. J. of Appl. Earth Observation and Geoinformation, vol. 63, pp. 158–166, 2017.

M. Valle´e, J. P. Ampuero, K. Juhel, P. Bernard, J.-P. Montagner and Barsuglia, “Observations and Modeling of The Elastogravity Signals Preceding Direct Seismic Waves,” Science, vol. 358, no. 6367, pp. 1164–1168, 2017.

X. Lu, Q. Meng, X. Gu, X. Zhang, T. Xie and F. Geng, “Thermal Infrared Anomalies Associated with Multi-Year Earthquakes in The Tibet Region Based on China’s FY-2E Satellite Data,” Adv. in Space Res., vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 989–1001, 2016.

Y. Contoyiannis, S. Potirakis, K. Eftaxias, M. Hayakawa and A. Scheko- tov, “Intermittent Criticality Revealed in ULF Magnetic Fields Prior to The 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake (mw= 9),” Phys. A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, vol. 452, pp. 19–28, 2016.

G. Khazaradze and J. Klotz, “Short-and Long-term Effects of GPS Measured Crustal Deformation Rates Along The South Central Andes,” J. of Geophysical Res.: Solid Earth, vol. 108, no. B6, 2003.

L. Ge, S. Han, C. Rizos, Y. Ishikawa, M. Hoshiba, Y. Yoshida, M. Izawa, Hashimoto and S. Himori, “GPS Seismometers with Up to 20 Hz Sampling Rate,” Earth, Planets and Space, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 881–884, 2000.

J. Park, K. Anderson, R. Aster, R. Butler, T. Lay and D. Simpson, “Global Seismographic Network Records The Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake,” Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 57–61, 2005.

E. Gunawan, P. Maulida, I. Meilano, M. Irsyam and J. Efendi, “Analysis of Coseismic Fault Slip Models of The 2012 Indian Ocean Earthquake: Importance of GPS Data for Crustal Deformation Studies,” Acta Geophysica, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 2136–2150, 2016.

G. Blewitt, W. C. Hammond, C. Kreemer, H.-P. Plag, S. Stein and E. Okal, “GPS for Real-Time Earthquake Source Determination and Tsunami Warning Systems,” J. of Geodesy, vol. 83, no. 3-4, pp. 335–343, 2009.

T. D. of Survey and M. M. (JUPEM), Locations of MyRTKnet network in Malaysia, (Last access date: 15 Feb 2019). [Online]. Available: MY/ dataset/senarai-lokasi-stesen-rangkaian-myrtknet-di-malaysia

I. R. I. for Seismology (IRIS), How are Earthquakes Located?, (Last access date: 8 March 2019). [Online]. Available: https: // are earthquakes located

W. A. W. Aris, “Spatio-temporal Crustal Deformation Model of Sundaland in Malaysia Using Global Positioning System,” Ph.D. dissertation, Faculty of Build Environment and Survey, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 2018.

J. T. Lin, W. L. Chang, D. Melgar, A. Thomas and C. Y. Chiu, “Quick Determination of Earthquake Source Parameters from GPS Measurements: A Study of Suitability for Taiwan,” Geophysical J. Int., vol. 219, no. 2, pp. 1148–1162, 2019.

S. Jade, M. Mukul, I. A. Parvez, M. Ananda, P. D. Kumar, V. Gaur,

R. Bendick, R. Bilham, F. Blume, K. Wallace et al., “Pre-seismic, Co- Seismic and Post-Seismic Displacements Associated with The Bhuj 2001 Earthquake Derived from Recent and Historic Geodetic Data,” J. of Earth System Science, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 331–345, 2003.

J. G. Proakis and D. K. Manolakis, “Digital Signal Processing,” Pearson Higher Ed, 2013.

O. G. Lockwood and H. Kanamori, “Wavelet Analysis of The Seismo- Grams of The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and Its Application to Tsunami Early Warning,” Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, vol. 7, no. 9, 2006.

U. S. G. S. (USGS), Real-time Spectrogram Displays, (Last access date: 7 April 2020). [Online]. Available: monitoring/spectrograms/24hr

B. Boashash, “Time-frequency Signal Analysis and Processing,” Academic Press, 2015.

Z. Nordin, W. A. A. W. M. Akib, Z. M. Amin and M. H. Yahya, “Investigation on VRS-RTK Accuracy and Integrity for Survey Appli- cation,” in International Symposium and Exhibition on Geoinformation, vol. 2009, 2009.

A. S. Yaro, A. Zuri Sha’ameri and N. Kamel, “Position Estimation Bias Analysis of A Multilateration System with A Reference Station Selection Technique,” Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 332–340, 2018.

A. Z. Sha’ameri, Y. A. Shehu and W. Asuti, “Performance Analysis of A Minimum Configuration Multilateration System for Airborne Emitter Position Estimation,” Defence S and T Technical Bulletin, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 27–41, 2015.

X. Chen, J. Guo, J. Geng and C. Li, “Performance of Linearly Interpo- Lated GPS Clock Corrections,” in 2017 IEEE Forum on Cooperative Positioning and Service, pp. 198–201, 2017.

L. H. Ochoa, L. F. Nin˜o and C. A. Vargas, “Fast Estimation of Earthquake Epicenter Distance Using A Single Seismological Station with Machine Learning Techniques,” Dyna, vol. 85, no. 204, pp. 161–168, 2018.