No. 1 Application and Evolution of Airborne LiDAR Technology for Topographic Data Acquisition Practice in the Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia Manuscript Received: 19 Dec 2020, Accepted: 4 Feb 2021, Published: 15 June 2021

Main Article Content

Hazri Hassan
Syed Ahmad Fadhli Syed Abdul Rahman


The mapping industry is one of the areas that is always given attention to balance the rapid development of current technology. The application of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology in the mapping industry opens up a wide dimension of discussion involving industry users as well as academics. LiDAR technology is now a common method for faster and higher quality topographic data collection than conventional topographic data collection methods. Observation data that is generally in the form of high-density point (point cloud) can also be applied in various uses, especially in the field of mapping and terrain analysis. Therefore, this paper will discuss related LiDAR technology including basic information or principles of LiDAR technology, the latest developments of LiDAR methods, and work processes involved from the point of view of the Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (JUPEM).

Article Details



L. C. G. David, A. H. Ballado, S. M. Sarte and R. A. Pula, “Mapping Inland Aquaculture from Orthophoto and LiDAR Data Using Object-based Image Analysis,” IEEE Reg. 10 Humanitarian Techn. Conf., pp. 1-5, 2016.

M. I. Sameen and B. Pradhan, “Landslide Detection Using Residual Networks and The Fusion of Spectral and Topographic Information,” IEEE Access, vol. 7, pp. 114363-114373, 2019.

J. P. Queralta, F. Yuhong, L. Salomaa, L. Qingqing, T. N. Gia, Z. Zou, H. Tenhunen and T. Westerlund, “FPGA-based Architecture for A Low-cost 3D Lidar Design and Implementation from Multiple Rotating 2D Lidars with ROS,” IEEE SENSORS 2019, 2019.

M. B. Isa, T. C. Hua and N. B. A. Halim, “Smartkadaster: Observing Beyond Traditional Cadastre Capabilities for Malaysia,” Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., vol. XL-2/W4, pp. 53-55,, 2015.

J. Abdullah, N. S. Muhammad and S. Z. M. Osman, “Analyses of Watershed Characteristics Based on Different Sources of Digital Elevation Model.” In AIP Conf. Proc., vol. 2020, 1, pp. 020084, 2018.

R. Wang, J. Peethambaran and D. Chen, “LiDAR Point Clouds to 3-D Urban Models: A review,” IEEE J. of Select. Topics in Appl. Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 606-627, 2018.

W. Y. Yan, A. Shaker and N. El-Ashmawy, “Urban Land Cover Classification Using Airborne LiDAR Data: A review,” Remote Sensing of Environment, vol. 158, pp. 295-310, 2015.

C. Paris, D. Kelbe, J. Van Aardt and L. Bruzzone, “A Novel Automatic Method for The Fusion of ALS And TLS Lidar Data for Robust Assessment of Tree Crown Structure,” IEEE Trans. on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 3679-3693, 2017.

D. Gatziolis and H. E. Andersen, “A Guide to LIDAR Data Acquisition and Processing for The Forests of The Pacific Northwest,” Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-768. Portland, OR: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, vol. 32, pp. 768, 2008.

B. Lohani and S. Ghosh, “Airborne LiDAR Technology: A Review of Data Collection and Processing Systems,” Proc. of the Nat. Acad. of Sci., India Sect. A: Phys. Sci., vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 567-579, 2017.

A. Asvadi, P. Girão, P. Peixoto and U. Nunes, “3D Object Tracking Using RGB and LIDAR Data” In. 2016 IEEE 19th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Transportation Systems, pp. 1255-1260, 2016.

K. T. Shih, A. Balachandran, K. Nagarajan, B. Holland, K. C. Slatton and A. D. George, “Fast Real-time LIDAR Processing on FPGAs,” In ERSA, pp. 231-237, 2008.

I. Toschi, M. Allocca and F. Remondino, “Geomatics Mapping of Natural Hazards: Overview and Experiences,” Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., vol. XLII-3/W4, pp. 505–512,, 2018.

J. Yang, B. Zhao and B. Liu, “Distance and Velocity Measurement of Coherent Lidar Based on Chirp Pulse Compression,” Sensors, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 2313, 2019.

Y. Ren, L. Chai, J. Guo, Y. Ren, J. Liu, X. Shen and L. Xing, “Application of Airborne Lidar Technology in Transmission Line Survey,” In J. of Phys.: Conf. Series, vol. 1550, no. 5, pp. 052002, 2020.

T. R. Ganendra, E. T. Mobarakeh and S. M. Khalid, “Technical Challenges of Airborne Lidar Surveying Technology in Malaysia,” IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 169, no. 1, pp. 012011, 2018.

J. R. Escobar Villanueva, L. Iglesias Martínez and J. I. Pérez Montiel, “DEM Generation from Fixed-Wing UAV Imaging and Lidar-Derived Ground Control Points for Flood Estimations,” Sensors, vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 3205, 2019.

A. Berger, R. Andrews, R. McMichael, D. Nikitin, B. A. Pesch and B. Pilnick, “Lidar Sensor Assembly Calibration Based on Reference Surface,” U.S. Patent No. 10,359,507. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, 2019.

B. Lohani and S. Ghosh, “Airborne LiDAR Technology: A Review of Data Collection and Processing Systems,” Proc. of the Nat. Acad. of Sci., India Sect. A: Phys. Sci., vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 567-579, 2017.

V. Badenko, D. Zotov, N. Muromtseva, Y. Volkova and P. Chernov, “Comparison of Software for Airborne Laser Scanning Data Processing in Smart City Applications,” Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., vol. XLII-5/W2, pp. 9-13,, 2019.

E. Raczko and B. Zagajewski, “Comparison of Support Vector Machine, Random Forest and Neural Network Classifiers for Tree Species Classification on Airborne Hyperspectral APEX Images,” Europ. J. of Remote Sens., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 144-154, 2017.

N. M. Saraf, K. N. Kamarolzaman, N. M. Saad, N. Khalid, A. R. A. Rasam and A. N. Othman, “Data Verification of Lidar-Derived DEM from Different Interpolation Techniques,” In Charting the Sustainable Future of ASEAN in Sci. and Techn., pp. 361-375, 2020.

K. Saylam, J. R. Hupp, A. R. Averett, W. F. Gutelius and B. W. Gelhar, “Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry: Assessing Quality Assurance and Quality Control Methods with Leica Chiroptera Examples,” Int. J. of Remote Sens., vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 2518-2542, 2018.

Department of Statistics Malaysia, “Selected Demographic Indicators Malaysia, 2019: Average Household Size,”, Mohd Uzir Mahidin, 2019.